Role difficulty

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Role difficulty generally refers to the difficulty level of successfully ascending NetHack with each of the various roles. Opinions vary as to which roles are the easiest and hardest to ascend.

A user has suggested improving this page or section as follows:

"Update to match current version and account for changes between 3.6.0 and 3.6.7 (e.g. the aklys becoming far more viable in general and particularly for Priests and Cavefolk). Statistics for the past several years may also be of interest"

Starting difficulty versus ascension difficulty

Usually when people talk about role difficulty they are mainly referring to the beginning of the game. This is because the early game is by far the hardest part of the game, to the point where you could argue that starting difficulty is the only factor that matters.

However, some roles have advantages over other roles in the late game, in spite of being at a disadvantage in the early game.

For example, Barbarians do better in the early game due to poison resistance, which allows them to eat poisonous monster corpses and protects against instadeath from poisoned arrows and spikes, both common causes of death for early-game players. However, Tourists have a number of late-game advantages over Barbarians, such as a vastly more powerful quest artifact and eventual access to good enough weapons and armor.

Criteria for early-game advantages

  • High Strength and Constitution
  • Good starting equipment
  • Access to good ranged attacks (especially daggers)
  • Good starting intrinsics (especially poison resistance and speed)
  • Access to strong artifact earlygame

Criteria for late-game advantages

  • Good quest artifact
  • High maximum statistics (determined by race)
  • Good acquired intrinsics (for example wizards gain warning and teleport control at high levels)
  • Access to useful weapon and magic skills
  • Good artifacts available by sacrificing
  • Starting with highly enchanted or hard to find equipment
  • Chaotic alignment (and to a lesser extent, neutral), to reduce the effects of the mysterious force in Gehennom

Roles' advantages and disadvantages

Role Comments
Valkyrie Most agree that (dwarven) valkyries are the strongest roles, due to the strong physical combat options presented by the role from the very beginning (arguably minimizing the amount of strategy necessary). Lawful valkyries have the advantage of some easy access to early artifacts (Excalibur), an easy quest with an excellent quest artifact (the Orb of Fate) plus intrinsic cold resistance.
Barbarian Barbarians start strongly due to their initial poison resistance, strength and two-handed weapon, but have a bad race choice (human/orc), a hostile Gnomish Mines, and a poor quest artifact. Some people recommend beginners try barbarians rather than valkyries since their very early game can be somewhat easier to navigate.
Samurai Samurai start the game with powerful physical combat capabilities (both melee and missile), but have fewer advantages as the game enters the middle phase. In particular, their quest is riskier than either the Valkyrie's or Barbarian's. The luck of the draw (finding a longsword to dip for Excalibur or an altar for sacrifices) has a big impact on how easy it is to manage this phase of the game.
Wizard Wizards are usually fairly easy due to their good starting equipment (for this reason, wizards are often start scummed) and strong late game (thanks to their excellent quest artifact, the Eye of the Aethiopica, which enables them to cast powerful spells without worrying about conserving energy). They also have potential to cast spells with no hunger penalty, and easy access to Magicbane. However, those that try to play them as physical combat characters will find them difficult.
Priest The priest's innate ability to detect the beatitude of an item is a tremendous early advantage, especially in armor selection. This, combined with their starting holy water, makes them essentially "walking altars". But they are also restricted in all edged weapons and cannot achieve multishot with any ranged weapon thus significantly reducing their options. They may or may not begin with immediately useful spells and are generally considered a moderately difficult role. Somewhat ironically, they are the role best suited for an atheist conduct.
Knight The knight's codes of conduct can be cumbersome, though the penalty for breaking them (1 point of alignment) is minor, unless you are roleplaying or playing a pacifist. It can also take some time to learn how to use their steed effectively. Due to access to Excalibur in the early game and the fact that they get very strong (>100 damage) magic missiles, they are perhaps the strongest late-game characters.
Ranger Rangers can either be difficult or easy, depending on how capable one is of making use of their powerful ranged attacks, especially in the early game. Rangers will tend to rely heavily on the ranged game throughout.
Rogue Rogues can either be difficult or easy, depending on how capable one is of making use of their powerful ranged attacks, especially in the early game. In later stages, rogues have the potential to become powerful melee fighters.
Caveman Cavemen can be considered a more difficult version of samurai and/or barbarian. They have few good weapon options until receiving the Sceptre of Might from their quest and also lack the ability to #twoweapon.
Monk Monks are a unique role whose early game is relatively easy compared to its tricky midgame, mostly due to Master Kaen (prior to 3.6.0) and various armor and weapon penalties. They are perhaps the role best equipped to attempt a weaponless conduct.
Healer Healers start with poison resistance, lots of zorkmids and a deep knowledge and skill in healing both themselves and any pets. But they also begin with poor armor, a weak weapon and typically single-digit strength, making them difficult early. They are perhaps the role best-equipped to attempt the Protection racket, which can give a good defensive boost early in the game.
Archeologist Archeologists start with speed and stealth. Starting with a pick-axe (for digging out vaults or gems embedded in rock) and the ability to formally identify precious gems with their starting touchstone, they are also well-suited for buying protection early. However, their bad starting physical stats and AC make the early game very difficult.
Tourist The tourist's greatest early-game advantage is their starting stack of +2 darts, which are good ranged weapons for the early game and can be poisoned; their expensive camera is also useful for evading non-Elbereth respecting monsters. Tourists enjoy a lot of advantages in the endgame, which make them arguably one of the stronger roles - they can use nearly any weapon effectively, start with a Hawaiian shirt, which can be enchanted for extra AC later in the game, and their quest artifact, the Platinum Yendorian Express Card, is one of the best artifacts in the game.

The following information pertains to an upcoming version (3.7.0). If this version is now released, please verify that it is still accurate, then update the page to incorporate this information.

Several changes have been made to some roles' starting intrinsics and/or equipment, e.g. Valkyries now start with a spear (or dwarvish spear for dwarven Valkyries) and the Archeologist starting with automatic searching while gaining speed and stealth at later levels.

Role difficulty statistics

NetHack players widely disagree about which roles are easiest or hardest. In order to provide an attempt at objective statistics, the following table lists win rates on, as of December 11, 2011, for games which would form a streak of 3 or more if won (and thus, it can be assumed that the player was likely trying to win).

Role Wins Losses Total Win rate (%)
Valkyrie 147 88 235 62.55
Barbarian 119 76 195 61.02
Samurai 110 94 204 53.92
Archeologist 93 91 184 50.54
Caveman 98 102 200 49.00
Monk 96 100 196 48.97
Ranger 100 108 208 48.07
Knight 81 90 171 47.36
Healer 96 115 211 45.49
Priest 88 116 204 43.13
Wizard 153 206 359 42.61
Rogue 87 121 208 41.82
Tourist 85 137 222 38.28

The selection criteria of this data evaluation is debatable, though, partly because it only examines the games of players skilled enough to win two games in a row; and specifically one entry (the Archeologist) seems extremely misplaced in this ranking.

Another evaluation based on data from 2014-10-24 and based on a different statistical approach can be found at [1].

An unbiased analysis (excluding no games except ones where the player quit or escaped, assuming that nearly all of them were startscummed) of games on from 2008-03-20 to 2017-05-01 is as follows:

Role Wins Total games Win rate (%)
Archeologist 1134 64600 1.755
Barbarian 1225 47413 2.584
Caveman 866 18832 4.599
Healer 985 39874 2.470
Knight 960 34385 2.792
Monk 1003 60001 1.672
Priest 1155 66435 1.739
Ranger 951 39853 2.386
Rogue 942 48955 1.924
Samurai 1337 45058 2.967
Tourist 1351 76527 1.765
Valkyrie 2413 141934 1.700
Wizard 3572 330560 1.081

This has similar conclusions to the unbiased analysis, and it most likely indicates some differences in how different roles are generally selected and played. For example, Cavemen are the least popular role to play and are likely chosen more often by experienced players trying to complete all roles or play in tournaments, and Wizards have enough good and varied starting equipment that startscummers might try to play them instead of quitting, but still die quickly because the player still doesn't really care about the outcome of the game.

Role categories

Many players mentally group roles into categories based on typical style of play.

Valkyries, Barbarians, and Samurai specialize in melee combat and rely on strong armor and powerful weapons. This style of play tends to be easier for less experienced players. Knights also fit into this category, but can be much more effective using a very different style based on their ability to #ride their starting pony. Cavemen are essentially weaker versions of Barbarians. An Archeologist who finds a dwarvish mattock and some decent armor can do pretty well as a melee fighter.

Roles that specialize in spellcasting include Wizards, Priests, Monks, and Healers. Using spells effectively adds a new dimension to game strategy, requiring the player to keep track of available Power, avoid metallic armor, and understand the advantages and limitations of the specific spells available, which raises the difficulty level for new players. However, the tremendous power of many spells (as well as other advantages of these roles, such as the Priest's ability to BUC-identify) can be very useful.

Rogues, Rangers, and Tourists are best suited to focusing on ranged weapons, at least in the early game. Success often depends on patience and cunning, as well as an understanding of the power of Elbereth.

See also

External links

This page may need to be updated for the current version of NetHack.

It may contain text specific to NetHack 3.6.0. Information on this page may be out of date.

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